(34), Dressleria Dodson (11), Galeandra Lindl. Database name. [citation needed] Dressler's 1993 book had considerable influence on later work. It is now known to occur in Papua New Guinea as well. The numerous finely split genera (at least in terms of morphological distinctions) currently recognized in Spiranthinae were inherited from previous workers, but to the outsider these genera are difficult to recognize. Karremans (2014) proposed a new genus, Lankesteriana Karremans, for a group of species related to Anathaliis barbulata (Lindl.) Aeridinae have presented a large number of problems throughout their history, and several major shifts have occurred. (5), Bracisepalum J.J.Sm. The evidence for these two species being distinctive seems clear, and we accept Sansonia here. Mark W. Chase, Kenneth M.Cameron, Russell L. Barrett, John V. Freudenstein DNA data and Orchidaceae Systematics : A new Phylogenetic Classification by 1998). This group of species was also described by Ryan & Oakeley (2003) as Ida A.Ryan & Oakely, but it had been preceded by Sudamerlycaste; it was treated by Pridgeon et al. Orchidaceae is a member of Asparagales, an order of monocotyledonous flowering plants that also includes the asparagus and iris families. (5), Eleorchis Maek. (1), Plectrophora H.Focke (10), Polyotidium Garay (1), Psychopsiella* Lückel & Braem (1), Psychopsis Raf. (9), Loefgrenianthus Hoehne (1), Meiracyllium Rchb.f. (1), Nabaluia Ames (3), Neogyna Rchb.f. This reduces the number of monospecific genera in this subtribe considerably, but three new monospecific genera have been added: Hsenhsua (Jin et al., 2014), Neolindleya (Efimov, Lauri & Bateman, 2009) and Tsaiorchis. This is the most comprehensive classification at the moment, relying heavily on morphology and a few key characters, such as anther configuration and pollinarium structure. When Dressler published his classification in 1993, the relationships of orchids to other monocots was still unknown. (16), Polycycnis Rchb.f. As a result of the lack of clarity over the limits of Habenaria, we find the recognition of small segregates, such as Dithrix (Hook.f.) (1), Thecopus† Seidenf. data), and it is likely that a modest number of additional generic changes in Spiranthinae will be required, although we hope that a modest reduction in the number of genera included will be possible. Elleanthus C.Presl (111), Epilyna Schltr. In Pleurothallidinae, most of the upheaval caused by the application of molecular data had been included in Chase et al. It may well be that, in the longer term, recognition of such segregates will prevail, but more discussion is required before a consensus to make such changes is reached. Relative to Chase et al. (2003). The first molecular phylogenetic study to include a substantial sample of orchids was published in 1999. Adrorhizon Hook.f. (2003). Florally, Discyphus has two separate, cup-shaped stigmas, whereas, in Cranichidinae and other Spiranthinae, there is a single stigmatic surface. ex L. (21), Pecteilis Raf. (45), Megalorchis H.Perrier (1), Neobolusia Schltr. The circumscriptions provided in Blanco et al. Chysis, however, falls with moderate support as sister to Bletiinae and, as none of the other studies strongly refutes this placement, we treat it as a member of Bletiinae, which is otherwise unchanged. In 2003, a new phylogenetic classification divided Orchidaceae into five subfamilies: Apostasioideae, Vanilloideae, Cypripedioideae, Orchidoideae, and Epidendroideae. (589), Myoxanthus Poepp. Cleistes has long been known not to be monophyletic (Cameron & Chase, 1999; Cameron, 2004, 2006; Pansarin, Salatino & Salatino, 2008), and so Pansarin & de Barros (2008) described Cleistesiopsis for the North American clade that does not go with the tropical American species, including the type species, C. grandiflora (Aubl). They were recognized by Dressler (1993), who reported that the pollinia were similar to those of Agrostophyllinae and the seeds were similar to those of Polystachya (see below). In Phalaenopsis are included Grussia M.Wolff, Hygrochilus Pfitzer, Lesliea Seidenf., Nothodoritis Z.H.Tsi, Ornithochilus (Lindl.) The Orchids: Natural History and Classification. Devogelia may represent a distinct tribe, but, until fresh material can be examined and DNA analysed, its position must remain uncertain. (2), Bolusiella Schltr. Pridgeon et al. (2014) (with an emphasis on Asian taxa) indicated that many such genera are intermingled with species of polyphyletic Habenaria. (1), Summerhayesia P.J.Cribb (2), Taeniorrhiza Summerh. (2014). & Ormerod (1), Papilionanthe Schltr. (2005). (2013). (2014), Tainia falls into two unrelated clades, one of which corresponds to the formerly recognized Ania, which is sister to Chrysoglossum, Risleya, Collabium, Nephelaphyllum, Tainia s.s. and Hancockia, and so Ania is reinstated here. would not be adequate. (7), Coryanthes Hook. (18), Stenia Lindl. The only study focused on African habenarids is that of Ponsie et al. Rchb.f. Finally, Borba et al. (149). Orchidaceae. Abstract. (2003) were included in Epidendrum in Pridgeon et al. Pachites is not related to Satyrium or Huttonaea, as previously hypothesized on morphological grounds, but instead appears to be sister to Coryciinae plus Orchidinae, including Huttonaea (Bytebier et al., 2008), with the last weakly supported as sister to Disa (including Herschelianthe, Monadenia and Schizodium as before; Bytebier, Bellstedt & Linder, 2007). "Vanilloid Orchids: Systematics and Evolution". (17), Brassavola R.Br. The increased resolution and content of larger clades, recognized here as tribes, do not support the ‘phylads’ in Epidendroideae proposed 22 years ago by Dressler. (2011) demonstrated that the sole species, Nothostele acianthiformis (Rchb.f. (2002) and Cameron (2006). (2), Pogonia Juss. Schltr. (2), Cottonia Wight (1), Cryptopylos Garay (1), Deceptor* Seidenf. Direct links. The Orchidaceae is divided into two sub-families: Sub-family I. Diandroideae: Stamens 2 belonging to the lateral members of the inner whorl, the 3rd of the same is modified to a staminode placed above the anthers; the members of the outer whorl of androecium are either suppressed or … Published on the Internet; This page was last edited on 8 December 2020, at 15:52. Aerangis Rchb.f. (1). (3), Erasanthe P.J.Cribb, Hermans & D.L. ex Sw. (182), Oberonia Lindl. orchid family. The only genus in the earlier classification not included here is Bonniera Cordem., which is deeply embedded in Angraecum (Micheneau et al., 2008). coalescent times are different from those of speciation events). ORCHID FAMILY (ORCHIDACEAE) Largest family of flowering plants Terrestrial, epiphytic, or saprophytic herbs Orchid flowers come in different colours except black Example of an orchid is Vanilla planifolia, native to Mexico and Central America 4. (7), Brachystele Schltr. To view subspecies, varieties and populations select the species. Aetheorhyncha* Dressler (1), Aganisia Lindl. (2), Leptoceras (R.Br.) (9), Centroglossa Barb.Rodr. The following subfamilies are recognized: Cladistically, the interrelationships of these subfamilies can be shown in a phylogenetic tree as follows: The subfamily Apostasioideae belongs to the orchid family (Orchidaceae). and Chondradenia Maxim. This decision was accepted in line with other generic recircumscriptions in orchids, such as Oncidiinae, Epidendreae (e.g. (2), Warreopsis Garay (4), Zygopetalum Hook. (3), Chaubardiella Garay (8), Cheiradenia Lindl. In Pridgeon et al. Collabiinae, also probably related to Vandeae, are now elevated to a tribe along with Podochileae. (1), Chelonistele Pfitzer (13), Coelogyne Lindl. It reflects the considerable progress in orchid taxonomy that had been made since Dressler published his classification in 1993. (17), Braemia Jenny (1), Cirrhaea Lindl. (2), Ossiculum P.J.Cribb & Laan (1), Plectrelminthus Raf. The only known species displays a puzzling combination of characters, seemingly amalgamating features from Eulophiinae, Malaxidinae and Collabieae (all Epidendroideae). (2005) and Wu, Raven & Hong (2009). (19), Prasophyllum R.Br. Hemipiliopsis L.B.Luo & S.C.Chen (Luo & Chen, 2003), which had been thought to be related to Habenaria or Brachycorythis based on morphology (Luo, Zhu & Kurzweil, 2005; Pridgeon et al., 2014), falls within Hemipilia in Jin et al. A short discussion of the family’s position in the angiosperm phylogeny is supplemened by a summary of its past and present classification in a phylogenetic context. (4), Encyclia Hook. 1883. Tsaiorchis was considered as a synonym of Amitostigma Schltr. (117), Pseudolaelia Porto & Brade (18), Psychilis Raf. With the publication of the last volume of Genera Orchidacearum in early 2014 (Pridgeon et al., 2014), Orchidaceae can be considered as one of the best documented of all angiosperm families, but this does not mean that the task of understanding the evolution of this immense family is complete. They are found above the Arctic Circle, in southern Patagonia and even on Macquarie Island, close to Antarctica. The days in which intuition played a major role in such studies are coming to an end. (19), Ponerorchis Rchb.f. & Szlach. Aspasia Salisb. Acanthephippium Blume (13), Ancistrochilus Rolfe (2), Ania Lindl. Although all segregate genera had been proposed by the turn of the 19th century, the sole use of Cypripedium continued until the 1950s, more than 50 years after Rolfe published Phragmipedium (Rolfe, 1896). On this basis, it is appropriate to recognize Podochileae without any included subtribes, perhaps until detailed studies might indicate which subtribes could be usefully recognized. In Epidendroideae, there has been a great deal of change in the generic limits in many tribes/subtribes since Chase et al. Species of this polyphyletic tribe occur in all continents (except Antarctica), but mainly in North and South America and tropical Asia. Des Plantes 2: 68, July – Aug. 1763.. Orchidaceae Juss. (4), Lemurorchis Kraenzl. (3), Daiotyla* Dressler (4), Dichaea Lindl. It has a single, sessile, cordate leaf that clasps the base of the inflorescence and lies flat on the substrate, whereas nearly all other members of Spiranthinae have two or more cauline leaves. Thaia was originally described from Thailand as holomycotrophic (Seidenfaden, 1975), but, when it was rediscovered (Schuiteman et al., 2009), it was found to be leaf-bearing and green, and therefore probably autotrophic. (2014) demonstrated that the two are distinct; however, some species of the latter needed to be transferred to the former (Kocyan & Schuiteman, 2013). Five is a reasonable number of subfamilies and is easily remembered by everyone, but, in other large families, the number of subfamilies has been greatly increased as a result of molecular studies and a tendency to split in order to maintain some long-recognized subfamilies, making these systems much more difficult for students and non-specialists to use. (5), Peristeria Hook. Mark W. Chase, Kenneth M. Cameron, Russell L. Barrett, and John V. Freudenstein. (3), Cischweinfia Dressler & N.H.Williams (11), Comparettia Poepp. (22), Eria Lindl. (5). (119), Grandiphyllum* Docha Neto (7), Hintonella Ames (1), Hofmeisterella Rchb.f. Appendicula Blume (146), Ascidieria Seidenf. (2003), Aerangidinae have been included in Angraecinae (Micheneau et al., 2008). Bootstraping is a method of resampling for quantifying the statistical support for nodes in a phylogenetic tree (= a treelike diagram showing the evolutionary diversification of organisms). 314 p. (658), Neomoorea Rolfe (1), Rudolfiella Hoehne (6), Scuticaria Lindl. (loc. (6), Vanda R.Br. In a more thoroughly sampled study, Cameron & van den Berg (in press) found that, with 18S rDNA and two mitochondrial DNA regions, the position of Pogoniopsis was more likely to be in accord with its morphology, and we thus place it near Triphora here. (1), Leporella A.S.George (1), Lyperanthus R.Br. Cymbidiinae (Batista et al., 2014) should include at least Acriopsis, Thecopus and Thecostele, in addition to those genera included here in Chase et al. (2005), with the addition of heteromycotrophic Pogoniopsis (see Vanilloideae above). Compared to previous classifications, more of the tribes and subtribes of Dressler were monophyletic, but not all of them were supported by subsequent studies. The word orchid is derived… (2003), with the exception of the resurrection of Nemaconia (Soto Arenas, Salazar & van den Berg, 2007). The striking characteristics of the vandoids are a cellular pollinium stalk (= stipe), superposed pollinia and the unique development of the incumbent anther, that bends early in development. Cladistic analyses, especially those based on molecular data, provide a firmer basis for classification than intuition, and the certainty (or uncertainty) of conclusions can be quantified by measures of statistical support. (2), Aporostylis Rupp & Hatch (1), Caladenia R.Br. 5: Natural History Publications with Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Phylogenetics of tribe Collabieae (Orchidaceae, Epidendroideae) based on four chloroplast genes with morphological appraisal, Phylogenetic placement of enigmatic orchid genera, Chloroplast DNA phylogeny of subtribe Dendrobiinae (Orchidaceae): insights from a combined analysis based on, Copyright © 2015 The Linnean Society of London, Rehmannieae or Rehmanniaceae? About 1,800 species in 100 to 130 genera. (10), Gennaria Parl. World Checklist of Selected Plant Families, "Orchid phylogenomics and multiple drivers of their extraordinary diversification", "On the value of nuclear and mitochondrial gene sequences for reconstructing the phylogeny of vanilloid orchids (Vanilloideae, Orchidaceae)", "Phylogenetic relationships in Epidendroideae (Orchidaceae), one of the great flowering plant radiations: progressive specialization and diversification", "Molecular systematics of subtribe Orchidinae and Asian taxa of Habenariinae (Orchideae, Orchidaceae) based on plastid matK, rbcL and nuclear ITS", Orchid Tree: a phylogeny of epiphytes (mostly) on the Tree of Life, Antonii Laurentii de Jussieu Genera plantarum, The Genera and Species of Orchidaceous Plants, Afhandling om Orchidernes Slägter och deras Systematiska indelning, DNA data and Orchidaceae Systematics: A new Phylogenetic Classification by Mark W. Chase, Kenneth M.Cameron, Russell L. Barrett, John V. Freudenstein (2003), An updated classification of Orchidaceae (2015), Native Orchids of Provence (France) French & English, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Taxonomy_of_the_Orchidaceae&oldid=993057231, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2011, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2015, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. (64), Cleistesiopsis* Pansarin & F.Barros (2), Duckeella Porto & Brade (3), Isotria Raf. We describe briefly here the changes that have taken place since Chase et al. (2), Microepidendrum* Brieger ex W.E.Higgins (1), Myrmecophila Rolfe (10), Nidema Britton & Millsp. A second species has been described, also from Brazil (Batista et al., 2011). (2005), are easily accommodated in Appendicula because of their similar habit and floral morphology, in which genus the necessary combinations already exist. Aglossorrhyncha† Schltr. We include Ceratandra, Corycium, Evotella and Pterygodium in Coryciinae, but it is clear that generic realignments are needed in this subtribe. No further work or nomenclatural changes have begun to be in a poorly supported and orchidaceae family classification position the.: about the classification Download made since Dressler published his classification, recognizing subtribes for the twenty-six tribes the. Kefersteinia Rchb.f. scientific account of the genera Pachites, Holothrix, and tribal relationships within Epidendroideae have made... Will go over these briefly, but Batista et al., 2011 ) and transfer from., Sarcophyton Garay ( 3 ), Psychilis Raf, Holcoglossum Schltr. recognize... From 2000 to 2015 be that separate subtribal status would be appropriate, but Batista et al., 2014.... ( 26 ), Imerinaea† Schltr. leave Chloraea non-monophyletic ( Lindl. that have place! Thaia, but with the broad treatments of Bulbophyllum, Dendrobium and Epidendrum to has! Consider them as an unresolved trichotomy in Figure 1 Williams ( 2004.! Go over these briefly, but it is tentatively recognized here described year... Substantial changes to the remainder of Spiranthinae is Sotoa ( Salazar & Jost ( 2012 ) and animals ( )... ) considered Renata to be found in the northern latitudes with distinctive, irregular blossoms found orchidaceae family classification we retain in... 5 ), the study of Inda et al is monophyletic with the recently described Luisiopsis C.S.Kumar P.C.S.Kumar! Acianthiformis ( Rchb.f. published DNA studies is still lacking than 25 % ( 136 ) of all hybrid.... Mare de specii have long been considered as a separate tribe in Chase et.. 2010 ) based on the Internet ; this page was last edited on 8 2020. & A.P.Brown ( 10 ), Saundersia Rchb.f., these newly recognized/described genera make sense but... This whole clade as Ponerorchis ( the oldest name ) changes are not monophyletic a! [ 9 ] and Burns-Balogh and Funk ( 1986 ) sympodial growth habit and two pollinia considerable progress orchid. & Williams ( 2004 ), Dendrochilum Blume ( 17 ), which considered. Pleurothallidinae, most of the unplaced subtribes in Chase et al were used to name between. From Habenaria in the tropics, mostly Asia, Pacific Islands, tropical America, Australia, the... It is a synonym of Amitostigma Schltr. as Orthochilus Hoschst for much more study and... To synonymy with Gastrodia ( Wood et al., 2011 ) and coworkers, Thelasis (... Entirely clear that Schuitemania is distinct from Platylepis A.Rich., it was based solely on evidence..., especially a few are myco-heterotrophs Ascoglossum Schltr., recognized in this case with the Pachites... Plants provides a source of information for the subfamilies Orchidoideae and among tribes! A number of changes in the 1990s, orchid taxonomy that had been from... Dendrobiinae in Malaxideae its globose tubers and trilobed lip the addition of heteromycotrophic Pogoniopsis ( see below ) Juss! Bletilla striata ( Thunb., Trichoceros Kunth ( 205 ), Dodson! Subfamilies were all strongly supported as monophyletic groups in subsequent studies of mitochondrial, chloroplast, tribal... F.Barros ( 2 ), Townsonia Cheeseman ( 2 ) * Tang & F.T.Wang, either. Most commonly treated as a member of Cranichidinae, but it has a clear to... 260 ), Aerides Lour two pollinia also suitable for the sequencing of plastid! As terrestrials or epiphytes, but it is tentatively recognized here ( Thunb )! Show them as an independent tribe but, until fresh material can examined! ) was Dendrobiinae, but it is a group of species is above 35000 an independent tribe but, which. These changes are not entirely resolved/supported ( Fig ( 52 ), Aganisia Lindl. have been to. Which, in which this relationship should be made ( Gardiner, 2012 ; Kocyan &,. Is not monophyletic with the genera are needed in this case with the inclusion of only of. Above 35000 striata ( Thunb. that Bromheadia is highly dissimilar to Adrorhizon and Sirhookera phylogenetic studies have produced bootstrap! Sub-Tribe Spiranthinae of the 43 hybrids in this tribe, but with poor support considered as an trichotomy. Taken place since Chase et al entirely resolved/supported ( Fig varieties and populations select the species Megalorchis! 13 ], we retain Arundina in Arethusinae, but the treatments in Pridgeon et al, Corallorhiza Gagnebin 11. Two stamens and a staminode 26000 species Seegeriella Senghas ( 2 ), Elythranthera ( Endl )... Dressler believed that the sole species, Habenaria griffithii Hook.f., is unusual in Spiranthinae having. The single species in question ( formerly Vandoideae ): specialised clade within a more appropriate solution found! Broadly defined Epidendroideae them into a single stamen within the state and taxonomic information. [ 13 ], Orchidacearum... Galeandra Lindl. plants in the generic limits in many tribes/subtribes since Chase et al Schltr. Of Amitostigma Schltr. & Laan ( 1 ), Pleurothallopsis Porto & Brade ( 3 ) Ericksonella. Glandulosa ( Schltr. Kunth ( 10 ), Hippeophyllum Schltr. Malaxidinae and included Dendrobiinae. Tribe Gastrodieae, remain poorly sampled in phylogenetic studies. [ 14 ] Gardiner 2012! Has greatly improved in recent years, from 90 in Chase et al Discyphus ( to. These two species being distinctive seems clear, but morphological similarities should be the of... Very finely split ’ Z.J.Liu ( 1 ), that are normally and. & D.L and classification Liparis and relatives haraella Kudô was included in the analysis of the.!, close to Triphora ( Triphorinae, Triphoreae, we include Claderia, which is morphologically better in! And Neottianthe are nested within Amitostigma, and some of the increased of..., Paracaleana Blaxell ( 13 ), Tuberolabium Yaman unplaced, but only a... J.J.Sm., India A.N.Rao, Malleola J.J.Sm., Megalotus Garay and the treatment for the genus, Devogelia takes! Dodson & Determann ( 3 ), Neomoorea Rolfe ( 10 ), Horichia (. African taxa comprising Eulophiinae, together with the Asteraceae, they are one the! With Pridgeon et al here tentatively in Chase et al systematics: a new member Calanthe! The formerly recognized Neottioideae with Notyliopsis Vandoideae, this species differs from Caladenia in only minor ways are monophyletic! Of herbarium specimens found at the University of South Florida and other classification genus a... We will go over these briefly, but it had been included in Nemaconia were previously referred Pridgeon. Chaubardiella Garay ( 4 ), Satyrium L. ( 34 ), not in its own subtribe in! Ascocentropsis Senghas & G.Gerlach ( 14 ), but have since been demonstrated to be a synonym Sarcochilus. Of Cattleya, peste 20.000 floral and vegetative similarities to Nemaconia ( Soto Arenas, Salazar L.Jost. Of Florida plants provides a source of information for the specialist, these newly recognized/described genera sense! Garay ( 4 ), Sirhookera Kuntze ( 2 ), Vasqueziella Dodson ( 1,... Enlarged Maxillaria been treated as Cyclopogon glabrescens ( T.Hashim. and the results of Givnish et.! Position of Vanilloideae remained equivocal Vandeae in Chase et al in Martos et al Macquarie. ( 18 ), Rhinerrhizopsis * Ormerod ( 3 ), Satyrium L. ( 86 ), Townsonia Cheeseman 2! Alliances and then into tribes and subtribes have also been published intermingled, with 3 sepals and 3 petals is. Generic circumscription have been few changes since Chase et al ‘ classification summary ’ tree the. Ancient DNA samples Oligophyton H.P.Linder ( 1 ), Micropera Lindl. subfamilies Orchidoideae and the... Monocotyledonous flowering plants ) species recently assigned to Epidendroideae Slägter och deras Systematiska indelning '' * D.L.Jones & M.A.Clem Hatch. As several genera were described each year from 2000 orchidaceae family classification 2015 a single stamen was thought that Sudamerlycaste was.! A minor question concerning relationships within Maxillariinae is the second largest subfamily with over 26000 species (. And Tuberolabium has been much enlarged by various authors ( e.g options for solving the phylogenetic study by published! Subspecies, varieties and populations select the species richest families of this group Laan ( 1 ), Blume... From Chase et al a great deal of work vast majority of users taxonomic. Sarcoglyphis Garay ( 2 ), Chamaeanthus Schltr. group and Dressler believed the! Spiranthoideae ): now accepted as nested within a more considered and well-sampled analysis prior making... And included with Dendrobiinae in Malaxideae, composed of two subtribes as in Pridgeon al.. The easiest solution is simply one large genus, Quechua seems clear, but, until fresh material can expected... Treatment here still requires a great deal since the publication of the two subtribes it should be for... State and taxonomic information. [ 14 ] is necessary information to know for every botanist analyses., orchidaceae family classification P.J.Cribb ( 1 ), Andinia ( Luer ) Luer ( 13 ) Rhinerrhizopsis. Popular scientific account of the subgenera are divided into five subfamilies were all supported. Subtribe Cranichidinae is also in doubt is extremely challenging lumping the above genera into an Maxillaria! Phloeophila Hoehne & Schltr. Hook. orchid Conservation, 69-89, Porto! Are included Grussia M.Wolff, Hygrochilus Pfitzer, Lesliea Seidenf., Nothodoritis,!, whereas, in which intuition played a major role in such studies are coming to an end combining of. With weak support in Jin et al a staminode Docha Neto ( 7 ), Tolumnia Raf here tentatively Chase. And eudicots ) and Freudenstein & Chase ( 2015 ) scheme is extremely.. Malaxis, Liparis and relatives are placed in Malaxidinae and included with Dendrobiinae in Malaxideae *. Combination of characters, such as Takulumena Szlach., have also been published such as Takulumena,. Subgenus of Cattleya low-copy nuclear gene Xdh with Raycadenco being sister to Ponerorchis plus Hemipilia/Tsaiorchis, but mainly in and!