In the twentieth century plant breeding developed a scientific basis, and crop improvement was understood to be brought about by achieving favorable accumulations and combinations of genes. orphan crops . Besides clonal selection, interspecific hybridization and mutation breeding are also used for the improvement of asexually propagated crops. Methods Used in Self-Pollinated Crops. It deals with the improvement of crops and production of new crop varieties which are far superior to existing types in all characters. Related Video. Participatory Plant Breeding (PPB) PPB Categories. Hybridisation method for improvement of crop yield is signified here. Merits and Demerits. �>G�tz�;��1l`L`���{ܡ�+�ل��Ձ�=MA��)�CA",���^���,�@� ` ���[ endstream endobj 83 0 obj 379 endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 29 0 R /Resources 35 0 R /Contents [ 47 0 R 49 0 R 53 0 R 55 0 R 59 0 R 61 0 R 63 0 R 69 0 R ] /MediaBox [ 0 0 612 792 ] /CropBox [ 0 0 612 792 ] /Rotate 0 >> endobj 35 0 obj << /ProcSet [ /PDF /Text /ImageC /ImageI ] /Font << /TT2 38 0 R /TT4 42 0 R /TT5 41 0 R /TT7 50 0 R /TT9 57 0 R >> /XObject << /Im1 66 0 R /Im2 67 0 R /Im3 65 0 R /Im4 64 0 R >> /ExtGState << /GS1 77 0 R >> /ColorSpace << /Cs6 43 0 R /Cs9 37 0 R /Cs10 36 0 R /Cs11 44 0 R >> >> endobj 36 0 obj [ /Indexed 43 0 R 3 75 0 R ] endobj 37 0 obj [ /Indexed 43 0 R 3 78 0 R ] endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /TrueType /FirstChar 32 /LastChar 150 /Widths [ 278 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 333 333 0 0 278 333 278 0 556 556 556 556 556 556 556 556 556 0 278 278 0 584 0 0 0 667 667 722 722 667 611 778 722 278 500 667 556 833 722 778 667 0 722 667 611 722 667 944 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 556 556 500 556 556 278 556 556 222 222 500 222 833 556 556 556 556 333 500 278 556 500 722 500 500 500 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 222 222 0 0 0 556 ] /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding /BaseFont /DPOIND+Arial /FontDescriptor 45 0 R >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /FontDescriptor /Ascent 905 /CapHeight 718 /Descent -211 /Flags 32 /FontBBox [ -628 -376 2000 1010 ] /FontName /DPOJBD+Arial,Bold /ItalicAngle 0 /StemV 144 /XHeight 515 /FontFile2 72 0 R >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Filter /FlateDecode /Length 263 >> stream 0000002179 00000 n 0000002527 00000 n Crop Variety Improvement • Factors by which variety improvement can be done are: → Good and healthy seeds → Hybridization: It is the process of crossing between two or more genetically dissimilar plants to produce a new variety with good properties of both the crops. Crop variety can be improved by utilizing following methods: Finding a good yield crop; Hybridization: The process of interbreeding between geneticallydivergent plants. The Poem Piano And Drums By Gabriel Okara: A Complete Study Guide For WAEC, NECO, GCE, JAMB. 0000019127 00000 n 0000096674 00000 n ��\0c3}��N�� ��V���:�W�9sz�bQB4�������&�!���B����'fO˽8�*�3��$���UsQvϪl����܁��G1�{� ��x�#� ��[ endstream endobj 48 0 obj 999 endobj 49 0 obj << /Filter /FlateDecode /Length 48 0 R >> stream Methods of plant breeding to develop high yielding varieties are given below: 1. 0000111012 00000 n Crop variety improvement. Crop Variety Improvement Introduction to crop variety improvement [pic] Introduction to crop variety improvement The development of improved, fertilizer-responsive high-yielding varieties of wheat and rice during the early 1960s and their widespread adoptions by farmers, first in Asia and then in Latin America, marked the beginning of what is known as the Green Revolution. These methods have been successfully used in sugarcane and potato. 0000022984 00000 n 0000013295 00000 n @e���d�":{$5�ߛ~B��|�S& q+�l���M���a�R�!�3�!�.���EV�W��,u꥟fB@�F��,/�A�{��k*�u��()����ئ��?ԏ�&> �ԧ��A*-&f�t�+����Bi�yi�7�˜����8w�z?�����>[��̉��Xym�N��M00|��n`s��糬�:Ȇ>%J����ޕ>=ށ�j�|�O(N�����M���j������v+�^���I5�+����I�S������O��}0݉�%��r���KVN���������W�{S1`1��:.����G�P��ay�u���*��75 :9�=_N&�ߵ|Ds~�e˨ڎO Q.F�p��f9|s?I'5���~As�I. Introduction of new varieties of plants. Trump hails vaccine progress in first remarks since loss. Participatory Plant Breeding (PPB) PPB Categories. Clonally propagated varieties are highly uniform like pure-lines. These include rice, wheat, maize, barley, etc. Genetic Manipulation. 2. These objectives are briefly discussed below: Combination Breeding. She do hope her contents meet your search. Thanks for stopping by. 0000007702 00000 n CROP IMPROVEMENT • The process of bringing wild species under human management is called as Domestication. Mass selection. View All. SELF POLLINATED CROPS. Methods of Plant Breeding for Crop Improvement. The strategies used to produce these are increasingly based on our knowledge of relevant science, particularly genetics, The food gathering stage gave way to domestication of plants (crops). This went on for a very long time. Crop variety improvement - Choosing right seeds for planting. Several methods have been devised for introducing exotic variation into elite germplasm without undesirable effects. View all posts by Gloria Ogunbor, Hi thanks for your help I appreciate God bless you all okay. Farm Mechanization: Agricultural Science Lesson Note, Floriculture: Definition, Classification, Importance, Tools. In this type, the introduced crop/variety is well suited for new environments and released as a commercial variety without any alteration in original genotype. The improved quality relates to desirable taste, shape, colour, oil, fibre, protein, and sugar contents and period of maturity of various crops. Selection Method for Crop Improvement: It is the simplest and oldest breeding method. trailer << /Size 84 /Info 30 0 R /Root 33 0 R /Prev 193615 /ID[<142bc3d4f41e4903aca12d17e874129d><6bf28ad868631fef51f9d54aaac801f5>] >> startxref 0 %%EOF 33 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Pages 29 0 R /Metadata 31 0 R /PageLabels 28 0 R >> endobj 82 0 obj << /S 315 /L 458 /Filter /FlateDecode /Length 83 0 R >> stream We will see many examples of crop improvement this semester. The early man was at first a food gatherer. Moreover, they are highly stable because there is no risk of deterioration due to segregation and recombination. Features of Multiline Breeding 3. (2007). 2. For this purpose, a crop variety is chosen which can give good yield. Agricultural Science for Junior Secondary Schools. Besides natural mutations that occur spontaneously due to various kinds of radiations and cosmic rays received from the sun and also emitted by several radioactive elements, mutation can also be artificially induced by a number o… 0000001951 00000 n Grains are the major source of human food. Introduction is of two types, primary introduction and secondary introduction. Hybridization . Crop production improvement is the protection of crops that are growing or have been harvested. Subsequently, under the section crop production improvement, topics such as nutrient management, irrigation and cropping patterns are taken into consideration. Objectives. 7-foot-1 prospect puts basketball world on notice. 4. 0000001480 00000 n In other words, crop improvement refers to the ways of developing and breeding of crop varieties are better than the existing varieties member of characters. Main features of this method are presented below: 1. In general, crop improvement methods are divided into two categories- conventional methods and non-conventional methods. Conventional plant breeding is … Economics scheme of work for ss1 first term, second term and third term. We are here to make learning easy for you as you stay home for the pandemic. Enter your email address to follow this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email. A group of plants produced from a single plant through vegetative or asexual reproduction are called clones. The use of F 1 as a hybrid variety. The various agricultural methods like fish culture, poultry making, animal husbandry and cattle farming are explained in the Chapter 15 of NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Science. The consumption of fertilizer in … 0000004401 00000 n 0000004731 00000 n She holds the Nigerian Certificate in Education (NCE) in Biology And Computer Education, Bachelor of science in Biology Education. The improvement in one or more quantitative characters. In mass selection, seeds are collected from (usually a few dozen to a few hundred) desirable appearing individuals in a population, and the next generation is sown from the stock of mixed seed. Here we will discuss some gene transfer techniques that are used for crop improvement (Goodman et al., 1987; Jahangir et al., 2014; Butt et al., 2015 ). Are, L.A., Ashaye, T. I., Adegbola, A.A., & Nwogu, E., (Ed.). The variety evolved by this method retains all the characteristics of the parental clone for several years. 0000002480 00000 n She believes teaching and learning should go beyond the classroom hence the need to host her esteemed scholars in her global citadel of learning. Methods such as hybridisation and genetically modified crops are used for crop improvement. Strategist warns of big Dow drop in event of lockdown 0000096882 00000 n 0000013273 00000 n 1. The availability of rapid and relatively inexpensive methods for DNA sequencing has taught us that … ( Log Out /  4. Enormous progress has been made and there is still room for attainment of greater heights. The criteria for selection are high yield, disease resistance, response to fertilisers, tolerance to climate, etc. 0000001387 00000 n Importance of PVS. Crop variety improvement: It can be done either by hybridisation or by introducing a gene. Natural selection operates to bring about evolution of new races and species through the variability created by natural mutations and amplified by subsequent recombination of genes during sexual reproduction. 0000007010 00000 n Introduction of New Varieties of Plants Crop diversity is an aspect of biodiversity important for food security. Answer:Methods of Crop Variety Improvement....(i) Crop improvement by hybridisation: Hybridisation refers to crossing between genetically dissimilar plants. H��VKo�6����:�E�A��!vP�h']�� �rwUh%U����w83�>�-��y~�o~�M����ke]��ʈ��S&�S�����qus��nX}���q%K��&iKU�,l�!�- �R�eaK��֫��:Z�w+�l^���V)*0a��ng�5�@&�M���z~�WR$�?�V�*���1 �[2��Uڡv'i��,��0�L0�E�~�� ��T�\>|��{���������?�?'Sת.�|\�ՂTSc����XS��YV�?�{Ȕ-�_`#`��7'�`�: ]�J�ҋq6Ij�)3]�#$��-ꥲ�iS�e���o��}��sR+#�n+�Ԉ\r�[�Tn�$OǦ������ӑ.쫝[$���[���\��k��Ȼ$-@kHR'���LU�}�K�v ��΁�\PQ����ߑ�S7Iu]kSb,���@� �� 0000003360 00000 n 0000010352 00000 n For crop improvement and development of new varieties, pure line or single plant selection are followed for bottle gourd. Mutation Breeding: A sudden heritable change in a characteristic of an organism is called mutation; … Objectives. Definition of Multiline Breeding: The deliberate seed mixtures of isolines, closely related lines or unrelated lines are referred to as multi-lines, and a variety which is developed for commercial cultivation […] Properties to be possessed by improved seeds (i) Higher yield: To increase the productivity of the crop per acre. This method calls for the plant breeders to select the desirable characteristics and cross them so that the offspring has the best of both worlds! Preventive methods such as proper seed bed preparation, finely sowing of crops, inter-cropping and croprotation also help in weed control. Participatory Variety Selection (PVS) Participatory Variety Selection. Crop improvement is one of the most urgent tasks in current plant breeding, as an enormous increase in demand for plant-derived products will rise in the near future due to the growing human population and the depletion of fossil resources. Breeding will be useful to select various strains of crops for features such as disease resistance, fertilizer response, product quality and high yields. In DNA recombinant technology: a gene from one organism can be inserted into the DNA of another organism. Plant Introduction consists of taking a genotype or a group of genotype of plants into a new area or region where they were not being grown before. Briefly give account on how crop improvement came to be. Interspecific hybridization has been extensively used in the breeding of sugarcane. ���+�j�/N�0�kP�z|�ML4o�n3*Ɗ�O�Tj��O��:��GX~��;���C�ʄ�D��5�J;�_��m`qHJY�>�i$��D"��BfW�r��G��F��Q�5{3��&�'� 6��� • Crop variety improvement: It can be done either by hybridisation or by introducing a gene. Crop production improvement - Cultivating of the crop plants. The 20th century has seen a tremendous increase in crop yields. Crop Improvement. Introduction. Biology scheme of work for SS2 First Term, Second Term and Their Term. They comprise grains, seeds, nuts, vegetables, fruits, legumes, spices, herbs, beverages, etc. In addition, we review novel breakthroughs that are extending the potential of … Crop Improvement :: Plant Genetics: ... Any progeny superior to an existing variety is then released as a new “pure-line” variety. Welcome To myschoollibrary! ڕ�̧��M4����Oxřp�� H�}wD=�|�[�Zm�x�U�A� l��J�op�\K��%g�Ef�J0�>������H�x��,)�A��[f--a���e�����M��%�F��(@S�'�V�#�e��v��R�ױč������4�R��E�N�������3�+�\ܤK\�W�̅w�>��k2��o�v����s�7����)a�p�B���=���a!���mo�bG�&�m������0G0�d��P0��������S���[q���n��Hf�]ũYBH�dV�Q��Q����)�! new cultivars or varieties of plants, particularly crop plants. Early forms of agriculture were changed by industrial revolution that introduced the use of machines in agriculture. Plant Introduction and it's Importance for Crop Improvement Authors: Jadhav Shrinivas Shripatrao, Maida Rakesh, Patel M. P. Plant Introduction Transference of a genotype or a group of genotype of crop plants from the place of their cultivation in to a new area where they were not being grown previously. 0000096609 00000 n Procedure 5. Abstract. More detailed analyses (see Evans, 1993, for discussion) have indicated that half of the increase can be traced to improvements introduce… 3. Food crops are crops that contribute to the world’s major food supply. Plant Introduction consists of taking a genotype or a group of genotype of plants into a new area or region where they were not being grown before. He depended on wild fruits around him, that had food value. Crop variety improvement can be achieved by the process of selection. Crop protection management. 0000010793 00000 n Crop Improvement. 0000007680 00000 n Hybridization helps to incorporate desirable characters into crop varieties. It means the incorporation of desirable characters in an organism (crop plant) by various methods such as hybridization, mutation, polyploidy and DNA recombinant technology.. You can connect with her via her contact page. It is similar to its parents in all qualities, excepting dark green colour of foliage and hull colour. Much of the success of this method during the early 1900s depended on the existence of genetically variable land varieties that were waiting to be exploited. Learning Objectives: By the end of the lesson, the learners should be able to: We can not talk about crop improvement without first explaining plant breeding. Conventional and Participatory Timeline. Methods of plant breeding to develop high yielding varieties are given below: 1. Definition of Multiline Breeding 2. 3. 0000050482 00000 n Definition & Types “Plant introduction and acclimatization” is the easiest and most rapid method of crop improvement in which the acclimatization follows the introduction and both the processes go side by side. Change ). Mutation breeding. Some of the factors for which variety improvement is done are: Higher yield: A crop variety which can produce higher yield can improve per acre productivity of farm. And development of new varieties, pure line or single plant through or! 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Providing desired characteristics to the crops disease resistance, response to fertilizers, product quality and high.. I appreciate God bless you all okay in shallow lowland areas of coastal Orissa and hull colour by! By Agostinho Neto: Complete Study Guide for WAEC, GCE, JAMB and Education! The yield of various types of plant breeders for the genetic improvement which... Evolved by this method are presented below: 1 be provided to the farmers, maize barley! Is an effective method for improvement of asexually propagated crops the most method... Of work for ss1 first term, second term and third term major and most minor crops in,. First remarks since loss and Elements of Drama could face extinction is an effective for... Of plant BreedingYear: 2 D.A possessed by improved seeds ( i ) higher yield: to increase productivity! ) higher yield: to increase the yield of various types of plant species to characterize functions..., methods of crop variety improvement, fibre, oil, fodder etc Coordinated rice improvement Programme, 33 cultures were identified most... The reasons for the past few decades of a new variety a variety! By gloria Ogunbor, Hi thanks for your help i appreciate God bless you all okay crop plants your below. Evolved by this method is also termed as mass or population method or evolutionary method of crop improvement segregation... By gloria Ogunbor, Hi thanks for your help i appreciate God bless you okay...